Monday, September 28, 2009

LIST OF EXOTIC TREES ...... ALIENS IN OUR OWN COUNTRY.

According to the book authored by Justo P. Rojo, "Revised LEXICON OF PHILIPPINE TREES", the following trees are "Introduced Species", which means that these trees were brought to our country the Philippines.

In my opinion, these trees whether naturalized or localized in our country are still invasive species. Because of this, our own native endemic and indigenous trees and plants are being displaced. Likewise, if a fast growing species such as Gmelina/Melina (Gmelina Arborea) or the known Mahogany (Swietenia Mahogani) are planted in a certain area, the slower native trees such as the Kamagong (Diospyros Discolor) will not be able to compete. Eventually, the much slower growing tree will die, which may later lead to species extinction.

Local name (Scientific name)

*the yellow highlight means that I have encountered these trees myself in-situ (on site) or have read about it from books.

Acacia Abuhin (Acacia holosericea)
Achuete (Bixa orellana)
Adelfa (Nerium oleander)
African Tulip (Spathodea campanulata)
Alcaparras (Capparis spinosa)
Alibangbang (Bauhinia malabarica)
Amapola (Hibiscus mutabilis)
Amherstia (Amherstia nobilis)
Anang-Baluga (Diospyros malayana)
Antsoan-Dilau (Senna spectabilis)
Aroma (Acacia farnesiana)
Asiatic Sau/Silktree (Albizia julibrissin)
Atemoya (Annona atemoya)
Ates (Annona squamosa)
Australian Anahau (Livistona australis)
Avocado (Persea americana)

Balatbat-Bilog (Licuala grandis)
Balimbing (Averrhoa carambola)
Bambu Hitam (Gigantochloa atroviolacea)
Bayabas (Psidium guajava)
Bayabas-Kitid (Psidium cujavillus)
Big-Leafed Mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla)
Black wattle (Acacia mearnsii)
Bo Tree (Ficus religiosa)
Brandis Bamboo (Dendrocalamus brandisii)
Brazilian Firetree (Schizolobium parahybum)
Breadfruit - see rimas
Brownea (Brownea grandiceps)
Brown Salwood (Acacia aulacocarpa)
Buddha Bamboo (Bambusa tuldoides)
Burma Kanomoi (Diospyros ehretioides)
Burmann Cinnamon (Cinnamomum burmanni)
Butong (Dendrocalamus asper)

Caballero (Caesalpinia pulcherrima)
Calabash (Crescentia cujete)
Camphor (Cinnamomum camphora)
Canalete (Cordia gerascanthus)
Cana-Fistula (Cassia fistula)
Champaca (Michelia champaca)
Cherimoya (Annona cherimolia)
Chico/Sapodilla (Manilkara zapota)
Chinese Anahau (Livistona chinensis)
Chinese Bamboo (Bambusa dolichoclada)
Chinese Rosewood (Dalbergia cochinchinensis)
Chittagong Balok (Milletia atropurpurea)
Consuelda (Euphorbia tirucalli)
Cutchtree (Acacia catechu)

Dapdap-Palong (Erythrina crista-galli)
Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera)
Divi-Divi (Caesalpinia coriaria)
Dudoang-Bulate (Hydnocarpus anthelminthicus)

Earpod (Enterolobium cyclocarpum)
Earpod Wattle/Auri (Acacia auriculiformis)

Fiddled Fig (Ficus pandurata)
Fireball (Calliandra haematocephala)
Firetree (Delonix regia)
Fishrod Bamboo (Phyllostachys aurea)
Floranjilla (Solanum wrightii)
Fringon (Bauhinia monandra)
Fringon-Morado (Bauhinia purpurea)

Gamboge-Tree (Garcinia morella)
Gatasan-Layugan (Garcinia polyantha)
Giant Bamboo (Dendrocalamus giganteus)
Giant Ipil-Ipil (Leucaena pulverulenta)
Granada (Punica granatum)
Graygum (Eucalyptus tereticornis)
Greenwattle (Acacia decurrens)
Guama (Inga laurina)
Gumamela (Hibiscus rosasinensis)
Gumamela De Arana (Hibiscus schizopetalus)
Guyabano (Annona muricata)

Handapara (Dillenia indica)
Hogplum (Spondias mombin)
Hojacruz (Crescentia alata)
Holarrhena (Hoarrhena antidysenterica)
Honshu-Chiku (Bambusa multiplex)
Huampit (Clausena lansium)
Hybrid-Quinine (Cinchona hybrida)

India Bamboo (Bambusa bambos)
India Lanutan (Polyalthia longifolia)
India Rosewood (Dalbergia latifolia)
India Rubber (Ficus elastica)
Ipil-Ipil (Leucaena leucocephala)
Italian Cypress (Cupressus sempervirens)

Jacaranda (Jacaranda mimosifolia)
Jackfruit - see nangka
Japanese Alder (Alnus maritima)
Japanese Persimmon (Diospyros kaki)
Jatoba (Hymenaea courbaril)
Java Almon (Canarium Indicum)
Java Tanglin (Adenanthera microsperma)

Kabiki (Mimusops elengi)
Kahel (Citrus aurantium)
Kalachuche (Plumeria acuminata)
Kalachucheng-Pula (Plumeria rubra)
Kalachucheng-Puti (Plumeria alba)
Kalamunding (Citrus Microcarpa)
Kamachile (Pithecellobium dulce)
Kamansi - see rimas
Kamias (Averrhoa bilimbi)
Kanela (Cinnamomum zeylanicum)
Kapok (Ceiba pentandra)
Kasui/Cashew (Anacardium occidentale)
Katurai (Sesbania grandiflora)
Kauayan-Kiling (Bambusa vulgaris)
Kauayan-Tinik (Bambusa blumeana)
Kauayan-Tsina (Bambusa multiplex)
Kayali (Gigantochloa atter)
Kayam (Inocarpus fagifer)
Kuhl Abiki (Pinanga kuhlii)
Kusibeng (Sapindus saponarea)

Langil (Albizia lebbek)
Lemon-Scented Gum (Eucalyptus maculata)
Limon-Cito (Triphasia trifolia)
Logwood (Haematoxylum campechianum)
Loleba (Bambusa atra)
Loudon Banaba (Lagerstroemia loudoni)
Lukban (Citrus grandis)
Lumbang (Aleurites moluccana)

Machiku (Dendrocalamus latiflorus)
Madagascar Pandan (Pandanus utilis)
Madagascar Plum (Flacourtia jangomas)
Madake (Phyllostachys bambusoides)
Madre-Cacao (Gliricida sepium)
Mahogany (Swietenia mahogani)
Makopa (Syzygium samarangense)
Malabar Narra (Pterocarpus marsupium)
Malakaturai (Senna multijuga)
Malapascuas (Euphorbia cotinifolia)
Malarayap-Intsik (Atalantia citrioides)
Malatanglin (Adenanthera pavonina)
Malayan-Abiki (Pinanga malaiana)
Malayan Myrtle (Lagerstroemia floribunda)
Maluko (Pisonia grandis)
Mamon (Annona glabra)
Mangium (Acacia mangium)
Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana)
Manzanitas (Ziziphus mauritiana)
Marcgrav Sweetsop (Annona marcgravii)
Melina (Gmelina arborea)
Melindres (Lagerstroemia indica)
Mexican Gumtree (Cochlospermum regium)
Mezquite (Prosopis juliflora)
Moluccan Sau (Paraserianthes falcataria)
Money Jak (Artocarpus rigidus)
Mottled-Leaf Dapdap (Erythrina variegata)
Mulberry (Morus macroura)

Nam-Nam (Cynometra cauliflora)
Nangka/Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus)
Naranjita (Citrus nobilis)
Narrow-Leafed Saraca (Saraca taipengensis)
Neem (Azadirachta indica)
Niog (Cocos nucifera)

Oldham Bamboo (Bambusa oldhamii)
Oliva (Cycas revoluta)

Palo-Santo (Triplaris cumingiana)
Panama Rubber (Castilla elastica)
Paper Mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera)
Papuang-Gilai (Polycias ornata)
Papuang-Laparan (Polycias guilfoylei)
Para Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis)
Pascuas (Euphorbia pulcherrima)
Perpon-Pula (Acalypha wilkesiana)
Persimmon (Diospyros virginiana)
Peruvian-Bell (Thevetia peruviana)
Peruvian Parasol (Cavanillesia hylogeiton)
Pigeon-Berry (Duranta erecta)
Pinkball (Calliandra portoricensis)
Pinkshower (Cassia javanica)
Pointed Star-Apple (Chrysophyllum oliviforme)
Polynesian Ivory-Palm (Coelococcus amicarum)
Portugese Cypress (Cupressus lusitanica)
Pukinggang-Kahoi (Clitoria racemosa)
Purple-Red Fireball (Calliandra calothyrsus)

Quassia (Quassia amara)
Quinine (Cinchona calisaya)

Raintree/Acacia (Samanea saman)
Red-Bark Quinine (Cinchona succirubra)
Rimas/Kamansi/Breadfruit (Artocarpus communis)
River Red Gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis)

Sampaloc (Tamarindus indica)
Sandalwood (Santalum album)
San Francisco (Codiaeum variegatum)
Saraca (Saraca declinata)
Sawai (Manilkara kauki)
Sibukau (Caesalpinia sappan)
Sineguelas (Spondias purpurea)
Solid Bamboo (Dendrocalamus strictus)
Southern Mahogany (Eucalyptus botryoides)
Spanish Cedar (Cedrela odorata)
Spineless India Bamboo (Bambusa tulda)
Spiny American Bamboo (Guadua angustifolia)
Spotted Iron Gum (Eucalyptus maculata)
Star-Apple (Chrysophyllum cainito)
Stemmed Durian (Durio testudinarum)
Strychnine-Tree (Strychnos nux-vomica)
Surinam Cherry (Eugenia uniflora)
Swamp-Mahogany (Eucalyptus robusta)

Taiwan Bamboo (Bambusa dolichomerithalla)
Taiwan Useful Bamboo (Bambusa utilis)
Talipot Palm (Corypha umbraculifera)
Tambis (Syzygium aqueum)
Tampui (Syzygium jambos)
Tangalo (Actinorhytis calapparia)
Tasmanian Bluegum (Eucalyptus globulus)
Teak (Tectona grandis)
Thailand Bamboo (Thyrsostachys siamensis)
Thailand Gamboge-Tree (Garcinia hanburyi)
Thailand Shower (Senna siamea)
Tiger/Spotted Bamboo (Bambusa maculata)
Toyokan (Cleidion megistrophyllum)
Traveler's/Traveller's Tree (Ravenala madagascariensis)
True Star-Anise (Illicium verum)
Trumpet Tree (Cecropia peltata)
Tsa (Camellia sinensis)
Tsampakang-Puti (Michelia x alba)
Tsempedak (Artocarpus interger)
Tsiampaka (Elmerillia tsiampacca)
Tuba (Croton tiglium)

Viapple (Spondias cytherea)

Waya (Dendrocalamus membranaceus)

Yambu (Syzygium malaccense)

Yellow-Bark Quinine (Cinchona ledgeriana)
Yellow-Brunsfelsia (Brunsfelsia americana)
Yellow-Elder (Tecoma stans)
Yellow Shower (Senna fruticosa)

Zapote (Diospyros digyna)
Zigzag-Rosewood (Dalbergia sissoo)

If you are familiar with most of the names of trees found in this list especially fruit bearing trees, it just proves that we Filipinos have introduced a lot of foreign trees and plants to our country.

I know that there are a lot of new plants and trees that are not included in this list, however, this list is substancial in determining tree species which are NOT ORIGINALLY FROM OUR COUNTRY, which is my main objective.

My advise to all, if we want to restore the natural beauty and original flora of the Philippines, PLEASE STOP PLANTING TREES AND PLANTS THAT ARE NOT FROM THE PHILIPPINES.

19 comments:

Gary said...

Hi! I'm VERY glad you made this post. I am an American who intends to come to the Philippines in March and start a livelihood project by teaching people to carve wooden spoons. If we can find good, soft native wood, we would use the branches of that. We could also cut down non-native wood and use that too. What woods does that lexicon recommend for carving by hand? Is there any mention of how soft or easy to carve the wood is? I work with Give a Goat.

Rico said...

Hi Gary! Thank you for reading this blog post and for posting a comment.

I see that you being connected with "Give a Goat"; in this cause oriented organization/company that helps our less fortunate Filipino countrymen is very noble. I applaud you for planning to start up a livelihood project in order to create meaningful jobs and eventually sustain the needs of individuals and their families. Cheers to people like you!

I must say that you asked a very special question that needs to be given ample thought. The answer to the advice you seek requires in-depth research not only on Philippine trees, but specifically of their wood and its properties. Though I am not an expert on this matter and that cutting trees is not something that I would promote, I would have to admit that cutting the branches might be a better alternative to sustaining the growing needs of man. Or that “rainforest farming” might be the proper source to address this need.

Anyway, to give you an idea, what you are seeking are Philippine “pioneer” trees. These are the fastest growing trees in our forest, which a few of them I have already discussed in my blog. The trees that I am referring to are the Bagras, Anabiong, Kupang, Bagalunga, Kariskis, Dita, Malabulak, Malapapaya, Lumbang, Agoho, Ilang-Ilang to name a few, which are species that I am quite familiar with. Seedlings of some of these trees are fairly easy to outsource, they grow vigorously, produce numerous fruits and seeds, but the wood produced are considered lightweight and light-colored as compared to other species that produce rich colored brown and red that possess more durable strength. The difference is that the latter kind would be fairly easy to grow as suppose to develop relatively fast. Now what do you think would be your preference? Are you going for quantity or quality?

Gary Simmons said...

Well, I hope to go visit Cebu in March and stay for six months. In that time, I'll train about 20 college students and then 30 adults how to do this. To keep enough wood for fifty people to produce a few spoons a week, I'm not sure how much wood we would need.

I want to find something easy to carve so that we can make a spoon out of a branch in only a day or maybe a day and a half. Quantity for that many people should not be too hard to find, so I would prefer quality. But the quality is that it must be fairly easy to carve.

You see, we're not just trying to create a livelihood project but also trying to discourage deforestation. Right now people in Cebu cut down trees for firewood and charcoal. We've convinced people that they'd do better by keeping the trees and just cutting the branches for spoons, but they won't stop cutting down trees until we find an alternate fuel for cooking.

Although it may not be pleasant, dried goat manure with a few twigs should work. If we can get this project running, it will decrease deforestation rather than increase it. At least, that's what I hope.

So, I just wanted to clarify that my original plan was to NOT cut down ANY trees. But since you mention a number of nonnative trees that grow fast, that increases our options.

For right now, I'm concerned with finding any soft wood, whether native or foreign. But if it comes to cutting down trees, I want to have a preference for cutting down foreign trees and planting native ones.

Thank you in advance for your help. I will do research on "rainforest farming" to see what that is, and how that might work. Though I am a foreigner, I am committed to helping the people of the Philippines become self-sufficient and I also want to keep the Philippines beautiful.

Rico said...

Hello Gary,

Thank you for your speedy reply.

Your ideas are great! I also want to thank you for stressing that you are trying to discourage deforestation and only intend to cut the branches of trees to provide for the livelihood project of making spoons. Using dried goat, cow, carabao or horse dung and dried twigs as fuel for cooking is a great idea as well. Another alternative for fuel that I would add is the use of the coconut husk and coconut shell, which is usually thrown away by some people and taking only the “niyog” or the mature nut. Likewise, the idea of cutting down foreign or exotic trees and replacing them with native or endemic/indigenous trees is not a bad idea either. I myself am for these goals and that I am very happy that our goals in helping the Filipino people and our country will go hand in hand.

I did mention from this particular blog post that such fast-growing species of exotic trees displace our native Philippine forest trees. This is very true and that it is sad to think that most Filipinos would prefer to plant non-native trees as against the true endemic/indigenous species of the Philippines. The potential of our native species has not been truly appreciated and harnessed, despite the diverse wealth of economic, medicinal, commercial, cultural, ornamental and other beneficial aspects that it could bring to the country.

The concept of “Rainforestation Farming” that I have also discussed in my blog should be given credit to HARIBON FOUNDATION, which has founded and promoted this very concept. As such, I intend to post their Rainforestation Farming video in the near future, given the proper permit and approval of doing so.

Anyway, going back to the solution of finding the proper species for your livelihood project of making spoons out of tree branches is our priority right now. What I would recommend is that the concept of “Rainforestation Farming” be adapted and taught with different communities around the country and not only in Cebu. It entails or comprise of the different variety of endemic/indigenous trees of the Philippines, whether fast-growing, moderate or slow. Each and every native plant or native tree will act as one mass or entity that will act as an ecosystem that will mimic the natural principle of a rainforest, thus bringing back the endangered biodiversity or fauna of the Philippines as well. That when such entity has been established, it will replenish in itself and provide in excess the produce and requirements for our personal needs.

As I have mentioned some fast-growing pioneer Philippine trees, which will become the initial “pioneer” species as a source for your livelihood program, so shall follow the moderately fast growing native species to be incorporated along with the pioneer trees. These are the Narra, Molave, Dao, Amugis, Kalantas, Ipil and other species, which we Filipinos have mainly used and value in making our own excellent furniture and novelty items such as spoons. After a few years more, the slow growing species can gradually be added to the rainforest farm.

Hopefully, these goals will be realized in the near future.

Thank you again for this wonderful opportunity and attention that you are giving to my countrymen. I will be here to support you and help make this dream a reality.

Sincerely,
Tristan G. Asuncion

Gary said...

Thank you very much, Tristan! I will be happy to keep you updated on how our project is going. I will be staying at Arapal Christian Camp just 2 hours from Cebu City. Apparently the Molave is one of the species growing in the area, but unless things have changed since that 2007 blog post, I think it might be good to note rely on it too much.

Thanks again, Tristan. For now, I don't think we'll have enough funds to start a whole rainforest farming project, but once I go to Cebu and see how the land looks, I will definitely start planning on how to do agroforestry.

Rico said...

You're welcome, Gary! I will be happy to hear from you from time to time and advice you in case you need any help.

What blog post are you talking about? Am I familiar with this?

By the way, you should check out the DENR (Department of Environment and Natural Resources) nursery in Cebu City as they might have some native tree seedlings which are endemic/indigenous to the area. Please be particular with the "native species" as they might still be promoting exotic seedlings. You can make a letter of request to their office for your plant needs, stating the purpose for such request and the area where you intend to plant these. Hopefully, they will grant you what you need, either for free or for a small amount. You might also want to ask a local to assist you on how to go about with this request, just to make things easier.

Good luck!

Anonymous said...

is lumbang an exotic species?

Rico said...

Honestly, I do not know whether it is indigenous or exotic. Some reference claim it is while some indicate that it is not from the Philippines.

Anonymous said...

hmmm, are there Jacaranda tree's in the Philippines, cause they're so cool when they bloom they're like Royal Poinciana but velvet flowers...

Rico said...

As far as I know, there are no Jacaranda species native to the Philippines.

Anonymous said...

hi would you know the name of the 2 trees in bonifacio high street in front of all flipflop? Are they huampit? thank you

Rico said...

Anonymous, do you have pics to show which tree you are referring to? I seldom go Bonifacio High Street these days.......Please email me attached photo of tree profile, leaves, flowers, fruits, trunk and other details if possible.

Thanks!

Anonymous said...

sino pwede makapagbigay common name or scientific name ng mga sumusunod:

Region 1
Baroy

native in Region 5

Malahagi; Mara-mara; Barayong; Barayong; Malahagi; Nuos;

native in Region 6

Tapuyay; Kansolog; Balik; Sangil; Rumbang; Lawiyaw; An-an; Pangadlawan; Tabuyog; Maglate; Balud; Kurintingan; Palhawa; Malalangka; Guisol; Bayog; Kurintingan; Kansulog; Maglate; Balud; Tapuyay; Lawiyaw; Balik; Balangaan

Region 7

Bayog

Region 8

Bayog

Region 13

Colipapa

Region 15

Luisin

NCR

Sabiong; Money Tree; Malalangka; Baganti; Magolayo; Pagsalungin; Calapweng; Malatanglia; Bulakgubat; Baganti; Paitan; Obile

CAR

Bayog; Lapagicon;Gumacad; Kulatlat; Dolyao; Luctob; Lapagicon; Kulalat; Gumacad; Lapache-en;

Rico said...

Anonymous, taga DENR o DA ka ba? Buti alam n'yo kung saang region makikita ang mga klase ng puno na inyong nabangit. Halos lahat ng nabangit n'yong pangalan ay di ko pa narinig o nabasa sa anumang sulatin. Pwede ko po ba malaman kung saang libro o sulatin o paano n'yo nakalap ang mga impormasyon na ipinamahagi n'yo dito? Importante ko po malaman para matunton ko po at mapagkumpara sa ibang mga sulatin. Sana naintindihan n'yo ang linalayon ko.

Inisa-isa ko ang mga pangalan na nakalista at hinanap ko sa libro na Revised Lexicon of Philippine Trees ni Rojo. Ang mga sumusunod na pangalan lang po ang tumugma o may malapit na pangalan:

Bayog - Bambusa merrilliana
Liusin - Maranthes corymbosa
Loktob - Duabanga moluccana
Malanangka - Parartocarpus venosus
Paitan - Syzygium costulatum

Kung may litrato po kayo na kuha ng dahon, bulaklak, bunga, buto at puno, mas makakatulong po ito upang mas madali natin matunton ang tunay na pangalan ng mga klase ng puno na inyong nabangit. E-mail n'yo na lang po sa akin sa tristanasuncion@yahoo.com

Salamat.

Anonymous said...

nice post rico.

i am trying to help a community in zarraga, iloilo where i helped plant about 15 hectres of trees, endemic as well 15 years ago. i like the idea of gary building spoons. my problem is i am based in abu dhabi working as a captain with etihad airways.
do you know is any body interested.
my email is jquimpo@etihad.ae
thanks
joey

Caryn Rickel said...

I am a researcher on Phyllostachys spp.
which we are having a huge problem. Join our facebook and see our website. Institute of Invasive Bamboo Research. We find that Phyllostachys aureosulcata has been mistakenly called aurea. The research is now separating correctly the species within this genus. Here is our page: https://sites.google.com/site/invasivebambooresearch/ and our facebook which shows the destruction : http://www.facebook.com/InstituteOfInvasiveBambooResearch/info

Anonymous said...

I would really like to know the scientific name of BARAYONG which one can find in Sorsogon. thank you.
anonymous.

Anonymous said...

in last part of your analog,, why u told us for stop planting our own trees??????? are you an idiot??????????

Anonymous said...

barayong is also called TINDALO..scientific name is- Afzelia rhomboides

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